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This article or chapter is incomplete and its contents need further attention. Some information may be missing or may be wrong, spelling and grammar may have to be improved, use your judgment! Only use it to grab some ideas and pointers to further reading Often, motiivation makes a distinction between intrinsic motivation desire to do something for personal, internal reasons and extrinsic motivation seek recompensation and avoid punishmentbut the two are very much linked and difficult to separate.

Affectself-efficacy theoryflow theorystudent satisfaction. Maslow wrote one of most cited articles on lower-level human motivation and that was based on a synthesis of the state of art. He later expaned it to include higher level needs. This hierarchy is a bottom up structure with need 1 being the lowest level. Each lower need must be met before one can move to the next level. The relation between need and motivation can be described as a feedback system.

The bigger the need the bigger motivation and the lesser the need, the lesser the motivation. We are more motivated to eat when we hungry and less motivated after we have eaten. Regarding instruction, learners in these models are rather passive and the environment materials, teachers, etc. Needs are cognitively elaborated into concrete motivational goals and means-end structures. Being motivated means striving for goals which are by definition viah yet realized at the moment that they are formulated or expresses Nuttin, The individuals hopes and expects to reach them at a certain moment in time as a consequence of his actions.

There are three degrees of activation: At levels two and three, goals and the anticipated outcome are the source of motivation. One can distinguish between learning goals desire to be able to master a task and performance goals desire to appear competent or at least better than the others.

Fullfillment of hygiene needs only can eliminate dissatisfaction but motjvation can’t motivate.

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So let’s let just look at motivation. This model was extracted from fourteen first-level job factors related with job satisfaction and dissatisfaction: The five factor model defines motivation as a result of the job content or the learning activity if we dare to extrapolate. In a more recent publication, Furnham et al relate work motivation to personality.

A similar model concerns the characteristics of the task motiation the job environment Hackman and Oldman, Factors influencing motivation are:. These theories had important impact on how work should be designed. In simple terms, work is more motivating if tasks are varied and meaningful, if the worker can exercise control.


On the other hand task also should lead to results that are acknowledged by the environment. According to many studies, these models don’t work for everyone but best for people who do have “growth needs”.

How does he explain the outcome e. Dimensions of causes that learners attribute can be:. Of course the pedagogical design and the teacher can influence these perceptions.

In empirical studies these factors also show up in combinations related to given issues and affect. Philipp Dessus summarizes Crahay,p. Motivation equals the degree of perceived control. Most authors agree that immediate extrinsic rewards don’t contribute much to motivation.

Long term extrinsic rewards do play a role. Herzberg et al, identify recognition for achievement and social progression as critical factors that could conttexte called cohtexte. Achievement, work itself and responsability are rather intrinsic. The informal management literature often makes similare statements. Programs that use rewards to change people’s behavior are similarly ineffective over the long run. Promising goodies to children for good behavior can never produce anything more than temporary obedience.

In fact, the more we use artificial inducements to motivate people, the more they lose interest in what we’re bribing them to do. Rewards turn play into work, and work into drudgery. Pink’s Drive book makes similar statements. Task value can be defined as interest that participants show for given tasks. Artino and McCoach [1] found that task value is negatively correlated with boredom and frustration and positively with elaboration and metacognitive self-regulation.

Task value was found to be a much stronger predictor than self-efficacy. Therefore motivation and its factors should be defined keeping in mind in which part of the process they belong.

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For example, activating elements are more general factors which are more or less stable personality elements like curiosity, learner self-imagewhile directing factors like outcome beliefs, task value focus the persons interest on a specific target learning activity. Elements maintaining the motivation, on the other hand, influence learning activity while it is taking place during the training programme; test anxiety, expectancy for success or as feedback loop after the learning experience like achievements influencing therefore future motivation to participate or not.

The following table lists some non exclusive models of explanation. It is based on Manninen and was also found in Konrad In any case, DSchneider believes that motivation in relation to teaching and learning has to be conceived as multi-dimensional phenomenon construct influenced by various variables conteste as:.

According to Marilla Svinickiteachers, in order to increase student motivation, should:. In addition to psychological explanations cf. Results let to a typology of motivation according to 2 dimensions: The author also makes a rklland to constructivismi. Broad exposure to ongoing practice This more inclusive process of generating identities is both a result of, and a motivation for participation.


Thus, when an individual joins an existing group of competent practitioners, they are motivated by membership of that group both motivtion strengthen their identity as learners and, at least as importantly, to promote the success of the group. This process of mastering the virtuous circle of learning to learn is a central part of the process of successful adult learning. In a structured workplace, the role of the competent members is crucial, whether those with formal status such as supervisors or as informal leaders.

In practical terms this means that situated motivation will be enhanced by the motivating potential of the instructional design.

Motivation tolland linked to emotions, but emotions an related emotional design of instruction are yet another category of interest: Here is a citation from Astleitner Cognitive processes concern the acquisition and representation of knowledge and have a representative relation to the world of objects and facts. Motivational processes refer to goal states of the organism and have an actional relation to the world.

Emotional processes are based on the acceptance or rejection of objects and facts and have an evaluational relation to the world Kuhl, “. Jean-Louis Berger, Stuart Motivarion. According to Spinath and Spinath competency beliefs and learning motivation are not correlated in primary school children.

Birgit Spinath, Frank M. Spinath, Longitudinal analysis of the link between learning motivation and competence beliefs among elementary school children, Learning and Instruction, Volume 15, Issue 2, AprilPagesISSNhttp: This is just an outline, mostly based on Motivation by Marilla Svinicki. Motivation to learn according to Huitt, reproduced without asking permission. One of the definitions widely used in recent studies of training motivation Baldwin et al.

Training motivation is described as “a specific desire of the trainee to learn the content of the training program”. Accordingly, Mathieu et al.

In addition to expectancies theories VroomPorter and Lawlerauthors have built upon the studies of Bandura on self-efficacy scilaire Adams on equity This analysis leads to the conclusion that where a group has sufficient autonomy to manage their own learning in order to contribute to the achievement of shared goals, motivation is likely to be enhanced. In particular, valuing motivtion situated learning is an important process in promoting engagement in lifelong learning.

La Motivation en contexte scolaire

To put it simply, success at learning is a self-fulfilling prophecy in that it encourages individuals to shape their identity as successful learners, irrespective of any previous lack of success, such as within formal learning processes at school or college.

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