In April , as part of its commitment to becoming more results-oriented, CIDA’s President issued the Results-Based Management in CIDA – Policy Statement. The December CIDA (now Global Affairs Canada) RBM Handbook on Developing Results Chains: The Basics of RBM as Applied to Project Examples. produce a comprehensive, pragmatic and useful guide for RBM tools and operations. CIDA uses RBM to better manage its international development.

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Results-based management RBM is a broad management approach whose core focus is achieving results. It is guife on achieving results, improving performance, integrating lessons learned into management decisions and monitoring and reporting on performance.

The actors in turn use the information and evidence on actual results to inform decision-making on the design, resourcing and delivery of programmes and activities as well as for accountability and reporting. MfDR is about achieving development or sustainable rather than short-term results that have an impact on the lives of people. It is about accountability for delivering results to the citizens on whom the interventions are focused.

RBM is about selecting a destination first, then deciding on the route, checking against a map and making adjustments as required, in order to achieve the desired results. The RBM approach shifts away from a focus on inputs, activities and processes to a focus on benefits and achievements that rb a direct effect of the intervention.

RBM also emphasizes using information on results to improve decision making. The RBM approach demands that management continually reflects on the extent to which that implementation of activities and outputs will lead to the achievement of desired outcomes. It is about effectiveness of implementation.

Accordingly, management is supposed to continually make necessary adjustments to ensure that planned or desired outcomes or results are realized. RBM is not a tool; it is a mindset, a way of working that looks beyond processes, activities, products and services to focus on the actual social and economic benefits of projects and programmes at the level of beneficiaries.

RBM is a system, and like all systems its components must work harmoniously and cohesively for it to be effective. What then is a result or a development result? Some of the key elements of RBM are:. A central tenet of results thinking is the results chain, which is an illustration of the causal relationship between various elements over time. A results chain can be summarized as a series of conditional statements: If A is done, B will happen; if B happens, C is also likely to happen.

The diagram below is an illustration of a results chain. While a results chain shows a causal relationship over time, it is not a simple linear process. There are many external factors that may affect the results of the intervention, especially at outcome and impact levels. Outcomes may be caused by factors both within and beyond the control of the programme — the intervention may be one of the many contributors to an outcome.

At impact level, it becomes increasingly difficult to attribute the observed development change to a particular intervention, as there are many variables and many actors or sources i. At that high level, success or failure cannot be attributed to one specific programme intervention; therefore, reference is made to their contribution. Multiple factors, events, conditions or risks beyond the control of the programme or intervention may negatively influence or threaten the achievement of intended results or changes.

Accordingly, in any intervention, it is always important to analyse both internal and external risks that may hinder the success of the programme and attainment of planned results.

Risks are closely related to results and should therefore be analysed against the results framework of a programme. Risk management is therefore an integral part of results-based management. Internal risks are factors under the control of the programme that may hinder success, and include human and financial resource capacity, corruption, management capabilities, incentive structures, ownership, etc.

External risks are factors beyond the control of the programme which could hinder the achievement of results and include political, institutional, economic, environmental, social and technological conditions. Evidence shows that both planning and achievement of results increasingly receive attention at global, regional and country levels. Experience indicates that clarity in direction invariably leads to enhanced effectiveness and efficiency for policy makers, planners and programme managers.


As donor assistance shrinks and internal financial allocations are shared among competing priorities, managers are challenged to prove that their programmes and projects produce the results that they promise to achieve. RBM together with a changing mind-set and culture towards achievement of results is often positioned as an important part of management reform.

It helps to connect policy, resources and programme designs with service delivery and their effect on communities. At the beginning of a planning cycle, whether it is at programme or project level, it is important to determine what results need to be achieved, when they need to achieved, and what needs to be done right away, in order to successfully achieve set goals and objectives.

The Theory of Change as an approach is a guiding framework for all stages of planning thinkingimplementation action and performance management accountability and lessons-learning when intervening in social change processes.

It is a method that organizations and groups use to think critically about what is required to bring about a desired social change. It is a process designed to depict how a complex change initiative will unfold over time.

It creates an illustration of all the various moving parts that must operate in concert to bring about a desired outcome. The ToC brings flexibility to and expands on the results chain. Rvm fact, guidr could be called a results cloud. In UN-Habitat, the ToC is used as a result-oriented approach for analysing the complex systems in which the organisation and its partners operate, and for planning actions that are likely to influence those systems in a positive way, and bring about change in the lives of urban dwellers.

UN-Habitat distinguishes between the ToC as a way of thinking overall approach ; a process a ToC analysis or enquiry ; and a product the result of a ToC process. In UN-Habitat, a number of reasons and expected benefits justify the use of theory rm change as a tool to guide planning, implementation and performance management; among them:.

Planning in an RBM system is the process of identifying the goals or objectives to be achieved; formulating the strategies to achieve them; organizing or creating the means required; and establishing performance measurement frameworks, as well as determining the resources required. Planning lays the basis for implementation, monitoring, reporting and evaluation processes, and directs all steps in their proper sequence.

A basic principle of results planning is to guise with the desired change impact and outcomes and then identify the outputs, activities and inputs required to achieve them — develop a results framework.

Results-Based Management Websites: CIDA’s Practical Guide to Planning Large Development Projects

Gide implies a thorough analysis of the problem that needs to be solved, the changes that are desired and the activities and inputs that are necessary to achieve them. Monitoring discussed in detail later, under the sections on strategic and programme monitoring, section 3. Monitoring in an RBM system is a continuous or periodic process that provides performance information on the degree of progress made towards achievement of desired change or results at a particular time.

It involves systematic collection of data on selected indicators to measure performance against targets. Monitoring tracks progress and alerts management on whether actual results are being achieved. It focuses on the fidelity of the cause-and-effect relationships: Are inputs or resources leading to desired activities?

Results-Based Management Tools at CIDA: A How-to Guide

Are activities producing the desired outputs? Are outputs being utilized by target users? The process involves making adjustments and tradeoffs. Monitoring checks to see whether outputs are of the desired quality and whether they are timely and adequate to lead to the desired change. If not, adjustments are required — that is adaptive management.

Monitoring provides records of activities and results, and identifies challenges and risks. It will not explain why a programme is not reaching its planned outcome or impacts. That kind of analysis, as well as questions of cause and effect, is normally dealt with through reviews and evaluations. As part of monitoring, evidence of the reported results should be collected using indicators to verify what is reported.


Evaluation discussed in detail later under the section on evaluation, section 4. Evaluation in an RBM system is the systematic and objective assessment of an ongoing or completed project, program, or coda, including its design, implementation, and results.

The aim is to determine the relevance and fulfillment of objectives, development efficiency, effectiveness, impact, and sustainability. An evaluation should provide information that is credible and useful, enabling the incorporation of lessons learned into the decision-making processes of both implementers and donors.

More importantly, evaluations should be able to indicate whether desired results, especially outcomes and impacts were achieved, and if not why not? They should provide cira that monitoring cannot adequately provide.

Evaluation focuses on the achievement of desired results. Learning in an RBM system is a critical and continuous process that occurs throughout the cycle of planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation, all of which contribute to knowledge creation. Learning informs management and the organization at every stage about what is working well and what needs to be adjusted. An effective monitoring system is critical to facilitating learning and accountability, which are essential elements of RBM.

Learning takes place at every stage. Figure 4 emphasizes the importance of reflecting on and factoring lessons learned before and during the planning phases.

Within gude of the pillars described above, methodologies and tools are developed to form the RBM nervous system.

Results-Based Management Tools at CIDA: A How-to Guide | Logframer

This notwithstanding, for the system to be effective and sustainable, the environment in which RBM is utilized is as important as the tools and methodologies. A results-oriented leadership to drive the results agenda: A major precondition of effective results management is leadership commitment.

A results-oriented leadership ensures selection of clear objectives and strategies for the programme, demands information and documentation of results and uses performance information for decision-making. Results-oriented leadership demonstrates attitudes and behaviour that are essential for the success of the organization. The focus on the desired change or results must be supported from the highest political or management level by demanding results and results information.

Key to the development of a results-oriented culture is training for everyone involved in implementation, readily available RBM tools and reference materials, incentives that promote application of RBM and disincentives for non-application of RBM principles.

Incentives to institutionalize a culture of results: Managing for results represents a very different way of doing business. Traditional systems reward delivery of activities and processes rather than achievement of results.

Research and the experience of organizations and countries that have mature RBM systems have demonstrated that an incentive system is important for consistent use of RBM and the embedment of a results culture. Incentive structures are important for motivating management and staff to change a traditionally compliance-oriented culture. An organizational culture conducive to improvement and learning: Involving staff in the development and implementation of a results approach is important for creating the support for the necessary change of orientation.

This implies training and provision of necessary tools, as well as participation in setting realistic goals and targets, assessing risks and reporting on performance.

A results-oriented organization ensures that knowledge and learning from reporting and evaluation are used consistently to improve decision-making. Accountability and clear roles and responsibilities: Committing to results management requires that staff and management be held accountable for appropriate levels of results. Buy-in and support for RBM can only be achieved by actively involving staff and stakeholders.

People are inclined to resist any giide that is perceived as being imposed from above. When staff is involved in developing and implementing results, they own the process and appreciate the relevance of RBM and its related systems, processes and tools. Most accounting systems do not show the alignment of resources to objectives.